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Transactions which involve undue pressure may be rendered void or voidable through doctrines of equity and probate.With respect to lifetime transactions, the equitable doctrine of undue influence places the emphasis on the person who seeks to gain under particular transactions to demonstrate that they were not the result of undue influence.Until the middle of the 19th century, the courts applied the lex loci contractus or the law of the place where the contract was made to decide whether the given contract was valid.The apparent advantage of this approach was that the rule was easy to apply with certain and predictable outcomes. the place could be selected fraudulently to validate an otherwise invalid contract; it might lead to the application of laws with no real connection with the transaction itself, say, because the parties signed the agreement while on holiday; or it might have been difficult to decide where the contract was made, e.g.Prior to these landmark cases, mandatory detention had its first constitutional test in the case of Chu Kheng Lim (Chu Kheng Lim v Minister for Immigration  HCA 64).Lim’s case asserted that mandatory immigration detention was a contravention of Ch III of the Constitution.because it was negotiated and signed on a railway journey through several states.To avoid these difficulties, some courts proposed applying the lex loci solutionis or the law of the place of performance of the contract.
At other times, because the Constitution provides specific limits to what the Commonwealth Government is empowered to do, the High Court may be asked to decide whether a law made by the Commonwealth Government is within that power.Evolving interpretations of the Constitution by the High Court have resulted in stronger law-making powers for the Commonwealth, without any changes to the words of the Constitution.Important court cases have included the Engineers Case The 'Work Choices' legislation, which came into effect in March 2006, made substantial changes to the regulation of employment conditions and industrial relations.This produced difficulties in cases where the contract required each party to perform its obligations in a different country, or where the place of performance was dictated by later circumstances.
However, as the public policies driven by the theory of freedom of contract evolved, the Doctrine of Proper Law emerged.
The probate law doctrine of undue influence requires more than just pressure, nor is it presumed in any particular relationship.